According to the annual PwC salary and benefit review, Kazakhstani companies continued to improve business efficiency in 2018. The rate of return per employee (Human Capital ROI) grew 14% and reached USD 198,000. The share of labor costs also grew, on average, from 12% to 13%. This can be seen in increases in both average wage (10%) and average cost of benefits (3%). At the same time, results also demonstrated an increased rate of staff turnover, growing from 20% in 2017 to 25% in 2018 across all sectors. This growth was most pronounced, however, in the banking and financial sector, which saw staff turnover rate grow from 19% in 2017 to 32% in 2018. This should be an alarming figure for companies to examine closely as an increase of 1% in staff turnover leads to additional costs of 0.25% of payroll funds.